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Construction Mortars

Plaster

Stucco

Cement

 

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tadao ando natural light architecture

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Construction Mortars  

construction mortar

image source:www.georgiamasonry.org

mortar close up

image source: www.anlscape.com.au

 

 

 

Construction mortars are composed by various elements and have different functions in architecture and design. Plaster is composed by chalk and glue, while concrete is composed by cement, rocks and a particular type of mortar.

       
Plaster  

construction mortar

image source:www.georgiamasonry.org

mortar close up

image source: www.sydneyplasterworks.com.au

spotlight image from polishedplaster.co.uk

image source: www.polishedplaster.co.uk

 

 

 

With the development of modern processing methods in the early 20th century, gypsum plaster has gradually replaced lime as the binding agent for sand in plastering mortar. Its rate of set can be controlled, allowing the plasterer to build up layers or coats of plaster in a matter of hours rather than the days and weeks required with lime mortar. Speed became an important factor in the continued growth and development of the craft. Info source: www.oren-usa.com

The elaborate wall renderings of the ancient Greeks and Romans were painted on hard plaster composed of gypsum, marble dust and glue. Marble dust compounds could be molded into decorative shapes, polished to a sheen or painted. Stucco techniques improved during the Italian Renaissance. Info source: www.renovationexperts.com

       
Stucco  

stucco wall

image source:farm3.static.flickr.com

stucco wall finishing

image source:www.paramount-renovations.com

stucco details

image source: www.sider-oxydro.com

 

 

 

Down through history, stucco was made of lime, sand and water. Today, stucco is a mixture of Portland cement and water. As well, lime is often added to decrease the rigid properties of modern stucco and sometimes additives such as acrylics and glass fibers are added for strength and malleability. Info source: www.renovationexperts.com

       
Cement  

cement wall

image source:www.sharecg.com

cement block

image source:www.boreas-online.com

fumihiko maki minimalist architecture pic from arcspace.com

image source: www.arcspace.com

 

 

 

Cements may be used alone (i.e., “neat,” as grouting materials), but the normal use is in mortar and concrete in which the cement is mixed with inert material known as aggregate. Mortar is cement mixed with sand or crushed stone that must be less than approximately 5 mm (3/16 inch) in size. Concrete is a mixture of cement, sand or other fine aggregate, and a coarse aggregate that for most purposes is up to 19 to 25 mm (3/4 to 1 inch) in size, but the coarse aggregate may also be as large as 150 mm (6 inches) when concrete is placed in large masses such as dams. Mortars are used for binding bricks, blocks, and stone in walls or as surface renderings. Concrete is used for a large variety of constructional purposes. Mixtures of soil and portland cement are used as a base for roads. Portland cement also is used in the manufacture of bricks, tiles, shingles, pipes, beams, railroad ties, and various extruded products. The products are prefabricated in factories and supplied ready for installation.Info source: www.britannica.com

     
Links  

 

history of lime mortar: www.graymont.com , www.rumford.com

more about plaster: www.sydneyplasterworks.com.au , www.artmolds.com , www.oren-usa.com

history of stucco:www.renovationexperts.com , www.sider-oxydro.com

history of cement:www.renovationexperts.com , www.britannica.com

 

 

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