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Rocks and Stones Design

 

Limestone

Travertine

Sandstone

Slate

Gravel

 

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Rocks and Stones  

stone house architecture by cottam grave pic from http://www.buildingstonemagazine.com/summer-06/tucker.html

image source: www.buildingstonemagazine.com

alvar siza viera santiago de compostela contemporary art museum pic from http://thediagramofeverything.com/galiciancentre.html

image source: thediagramofeverything.com

vals thermal centre stone architecture pic from http://archidose.blogspot.com/2007_04_01_archive.html

image source: archidose.blogspot.com

interior design stones and rocks pic from http://freshome.com/tag/pebbles/

image source: freshome.com

stones and rocks bathroom pic from http://marquetteturner.wordpress.com/author/marquetteturner/

Info source: marquetteturner.wordpress.com

 

Stone has been consistently used for building since the Stone Age, as exemplified by Stonehenge, in England. Although it has generally been replaced as a structural material by cheaper and more efficient manufactured products, it is still widely used as a surface veneer for its practical and expressive qualities. Info source:www.britannica.com

Words can’t capture the essence of stone. You have to touch it, feel it, and see it to really understand its unsurpassed beauty. When you see stone, you make an emotional contact with it. You find it hard to find another product to take its place. Info source:www.stonesmithinc.com

       
Limestone  

limestone pic from http://dreamfloors.co.uk/shop/images/Limestone%20Calico%20LK36.jpg

image source:dreamfloors.co.uk

limestone rough brick wall pic from http://www.lafayettemasonry.com/Masonry/Limestone.html

image source:www.lafayettemasonry.com

limestone fireplace pic from http://www.firesandfireplacesdirect.co.uk/prod-fireline-stonehenge.php

limestone bathroom pic from http://bathroomlimestonedesign.com/

image source:bathroomlimestonedesign.com

limestone architecture pic from http://www.yankodesign.com/2007/03/01/renovation-of-gardiner-museum-of-ceramic-art-by-kuwabara-payne-mckenna-blumberg/

image source:www.yankodesign.com

 

Limestone is a common and significant material found in architecture. In the past, many world marvels, such as the pyramids, used ancient limestone that was created when there was water present instead of desert. Today, architects use limestone in many buildings, though it is most commonly used in North America and Europe. Info source:www.ehow.com

 

All limestones dissolve readily incold dilute acids, giving off bubbles of carbonicacid . Citric or acetic acid will effect thischange, though the mineral acids are more commonly employed . Limestones, when pure, are soft rocks readily scratched with aknife-blade or the edge of a coin, their hardness being 3; but unless they are earthy or incoherent, like chalk or sinter, they do not disintegrate by pressure with the fingers and cannot be scratched with the fingernail . When free from impurities limestones are white, but they generally contain small quantities of other minerals than calcite which affect their colour .

Many limestones are yellowish or creamy, especially those which contain a little iron oxide, iron carbonate or clay . Others are bluish from the presence of iron sulphide, or pyrites or marcasite; or grey and black from admixture with carbonaceous or bituminous substances . Red limestones usually contain haematite; in green limestones there may be glauconite or chlorite. Info source: encyclopedia.jrank.org

       

Travertine

 

fine travertine pic from http://designerinteriorsdirect.com/cheltenham/popup_image.php?pID=75&osCsid=rn398sdcjsk3hlvssbd8d5m9j5

image source: designerinteriorsdirect.com

travertine barcelona pavilion by mies van der rohe pic from http://www.e-architect.co.uk/barcelona/barcelona_pavilion.htm

image source: www.e-architect.co.uk

travertine vaselli marmi bath tub pic from http://www.trendir.com/archives/001642.html

image source: www.trendir.com

travertine polished flooring pic from http://www.naturalstonetilesflooring.co.uk/lifestyle%20page.htm

image source: www.naturalstonetilesflooring.co.uk

 

Travertine stone is soft and delicate to look at. It breathes spaciousness. It's relaxed and soothing. The feeling is peaceful, tranquil, serene.It's a simple beauty. A casual formalness.

Travertine stone is a form of limestone. It often forms near hot bubbly mineral rich springs. Gas bubbles become trapped and create a pitted surface on the stone. These pitted surfaces can be filled with an epoxy or dust resin. Filling the small holes and pits gives the travertine a more finished look. A refined beauty.

The stone surface can be left in its natural state with the small holes and pits unfilled. This is a warmer aged look which will acquire a beautiful patina over time. Leaving the stone unfilled will affect the durability. It will attract dirt much easier than a filled travertine making it harder to keep clean.

This is a calcareous stone. It is will react negatively to acids found in common household items such as lemons, vinegar, alcohol and some cleaning products. These acids will etch the stone by leaving marks, rings or dull spots.

Similar to limestone, travertine also varies in hardness, density, and porosity. Some travertine stones are harder than others.

Although the hardness varies, it will still scratch. It's not as soft as soapstone but it can't compete with the hardness of granite. You can always test a sample stone by running a sharp blade across the top or even tossing your keys on it a few times.

Info source: www.natural-stone-interiors.com

Travertines have excellent physical-mechanical properties and are also very hard. Which might seem strange when you realize that, newly extracted, travertine has physical characteristics still in a phase of change. In fact, in contact with air a block of travertine continues to harden and become more compact, due to an ongoing transformation of calcium bicarbonate into calcium carbonate.

Moreover, even the color of travertine tends to change after extraction: for example, the paler varieties tend to yellow due to oxidation of its ferrous salts. Thanks to its excellent compression resistance travertine has always been used for structural purposes, to construct entire buildings: examples are the major Roman monuments and the city's myriad churches, St. Peter's Basilica for instance.

The best-known travertines on the market are the Roman (meaning those from Tivoli, Latina, Guidonia, Fondi and other nearby areas) in the numerous varieties (classic, Navona, golden, walnut, etc.) and the Tuscan and Ascoli, both marketed in many varieties; also well known are the aforementioned red and yellow travertines from Iran. Info source: www.natural-stone-interiors.com

       
Sandstone  

sandstone pic from http://www.tradeinteriorsdirect.com/cheltenham/preview_cat_spacia.php

image source:www.tradeinteriorsdirect.com

sandstone wall pic from http://www.designinstone.com.au/

image source:www.designinstone.com.au

sandstone wall pic from buybuildingsupplies.com.au

image source:buybuildingsupplies.com.au

sandstone house interior pic from http://www.theage.com.au/ftimages/2008/05/30/1211654271405.html

image source:www.theage.com.au

rough and polished sandstone exterior pic from http://www.thebuildingworks.com.au/project-details.php?New_Homes=New_home_in_Ashburton&property=New_Homes&property-id=9

image source:www.thebuildingworks.com.au

 

Natural sandstone can compliment either traditional or modern designs, where the unique combinations of colors and textures can place a bid, as well as a contemporary feel. Because of its natural beauty, sandstone is used for the interior and exterior decoration including, paving, walls and floors. Info source: www.articlesbase.com

A sedimentary rock comprising an of sand-sized (0.06–2.0-mm) fragments of minerals, rocks, or fossils held together by a mineral cement. Sandstone forms when sand is buried under successive layers of sediment. During burial the sand is compacted, and a binding agent such as , calcite, or is from ground water which moves through passageways between grains.

Sandstones grade upward in grain size into conglomerates and breccias; they grade downward in size into siltstones and shales. When the proportion of fossil fragments or carbonate grains is greater than 50%, sandstones grade into clastic limestones.

Some sandstones are resistant to weathering, yet are easy to work. This makes sandstone a common building and paving material. However, some that have been used in the past, such as the Collyhurst sandstone used in the north of England, have been found less resistant, necessitating repair and replacement in older buildings.[1] Because of the hardness of the individual grains, uniformity of grain size and friability of their structure, some types of sandstone are excellent materials from which to make grindstones, for sharpening blades and other implements. Non-friable sandstone can be used to make grindstones for grinding grain, e.g., gritstone.

Rock formations that are primarily sandstone usually allow percolation of water and are porous enough to store large quantities, making them valuable aquifers. Fine-grained aquifers, such as sandstones, are more apt to filter out pollutants from the surface than are rocks with cracks and crevices, such as limestone or other rocks fractured by seismic activity. Info source: www.answers.com

       
Slate  

slate rough pic from http://www.filterforge.com/filters/4639.html

image source:www.filterforge.com

slate black and gray tiles pic from http://floorsource1.com/shopping/index.php?main_page=product_info&cPath=17&products_id=52

image source:floorsource1.com

slate dark greay interiors pic from http://www.beltrami.co.uk/eflashdetail/32/0/302/eflash_installation_in_the_spotlights_black_slate.aspx

slate dark grey exterior pic from http://www.beltrami.co.uk/eflashdetail/32/0/302/eflash_installation_in_the_spotlights_black_slate.aspx

image source: www.beltrami.co.uk

 

Natural slate is formed through the movement of earth's crust for millions upon million of years. It is of high structural density and its hardness and wearability are between those of marble and granite.They are ideal building materials for the roof, the floor, the walls and for building gardens. China is rich in slate resourses and have exported large quantities of slates to all over the world Info source: www.01234567.biz

Slate is a fine-grained homogeneous sedimentary rock composed of clay or volcanic ash which has been metamorphosed (foliated) so as to develop a high degree of fissility or slaty cleavage which is usually at a high angle to the planes of stratification. This high degree of fissility makes the better grades of slates an extremely useful roofing material (although its use has fallen in favor of synthetic and manufactured substitutes).

When choosing roofing materials, one must take into consideration the longevity of the roofing material, as well as the installation cost. Slate roofs have been known to last hundreds of years in comparison to the synthetic roof which typically lasts 10-20 years. Synthetic and manufactured roofing materials may initially save money at the time of installation, but the slate roof will last many lifetimes, making it the more permanent, economical choice.

Some of the finest slates in the world come from Portugal, Wales in the United Kingdom, Brazil and The Slate Valley of Vermont and New York. Info source: stone-network.com

A fine-grain, homogeneous stone that splits easily into thin, smooth layers. Slate is metamorphosed from shale with such pressure that the minerals recrystallized at right angles to the pressure. Slate is usually bluish-black or gray-black in color but it also has red, green, and purple variations.

High-quality slate, called Welsh slate, has been quarried in Wales since the early 17th century. Quarries in the United States are located in Pennsylvania, Vermont, and Virginia. Slate has been used in construction for roofing, and flooring and was also used for writing slates and blackboards. In the 16th and 17th century Europe, slate was occasionally used as a support for oil paintings. It is currently used for countertops, fireplace facing, outdoor siding, and as a paving stone. Info source: cameo.mfa.org

       
Granite  

granite white and black bianco sardo pic from eurasian.com

red granite pic from eurasian.com

image source: eurasian.com

granite sink pic from http://www.naturalstonesolutions.co.uk/store/product_info.php?products_id=8

Info source: www.naturalstonesolutions.co.uk

chippendale style mahogany desk pic from http://www.arthurbrett.com/desks/1977.htm

Info source: www.thegreenhead.com

 

Red background with light blue quartz dots. The medium crystalline texture makes it suitable for facades and other construction details. This stone is used worldwide in a number of large projects. It is a hard stone with not much of colour variation.

It is mainly used for flooring, cladding, kitchen counters and table tops. It looks best when it is glossy however honed, flamed and river-washed finishes are also available. Available in both slabs and tiles. Info source:eurasian.com

Granite is an igneous rock. Igneous rocks form when molten rock cools and solidifies or crystallizes.

The rate at which the molten rock cools determines its texture. When the rock cool slowly, it is made up of large crystals because the crystals had a long time to grow before the crystallization process was finished. This forms a coarse-grained texture.

On the other hand, rocks formed by the rapid cooling of lava at the earth's surface, are made up of tiny crystals because crystallization was completed within a few seconds, hours, or perhaps days.

Minerals within granite typically appear as small flecks throughout the stone, creating, a "salt and pepper" look. Other types have veining similar to marble.

Granite comes in a variety of colors and can be highly polished or finished in other ways. Info source: www.stonesmithinc.com

       
Marble  

http://luda.co.uk/iran/marble/images/persian_red_500.jpg

Info source:www.stone-network.com

white marble pic from sharecg.com

image source:www.sharecg.com

marble saarinen table pic from www.timeout.com

image source:www.timeout.com

 

marble architecture stadio dei marmi pic from flikr.com

image source:www.flickr.com

 

Marble is a rock widely used in buildings, monuments, and sculptures. It consists chiefly of calcite or dolomite, or a combination of these carbonate minerals. Marble is a type of metamorphic rock formed from limestone.

Marble is found in many countries, including Belgium, France, Great Britain, Greece, India, Italy, and Spain. Marble has long been highly valued for its beauty, strength, and resistance to fire and erosion. The ancient Greeks used marble in many buildings and statues. The Italian artist Michaelangelo used marble from Carrara, Italy, in a number of sculptures.

There are several types of marbles, including calcites (from calciferous limestones), dolomites (from dolomitic limestone), serpentines (typically green marbles) and travertines (sedimentary limestone). Each of these is similar in their composition, that being predominantly calcium carbonate, and their capability to take a polish. The stone that is quarried west of Belen in central New Mexico is a travertine marble. Info source: www.flooringguide.com

The characteristic swirls and veins of many coloured marble varieties are usually due to various mineral impurities such as clay, silt, sand, iron oxides, or chert which were originally present as grains or layers in the limestone.

Green colouration is often due to serpentine resulting from originally high magnesium limestone or dolostone with silica impurities. These various impurities have been mobilised and recrystallised by the intense pressure and heat of the metamorphism.

Marble is a perfect solution to complement everything from a modern entrance hall or office atrium to a luxurious conservatory or bathroom. Marble's classic property of the diffuse light the stone reflects is ideal for both calm lighting (especially candlelight) in the evening and for bright sunlight during the day. Naturally-occurring patterns in the stone create subtle decorative effects which will be entirely unique and thus highly individual.

Marble has long been associated with classical architecture having been used in temples, palaces and churches across continents, cultures and religions. Its light hues, slight translucence and unique, delicate patterns lend it the sophisticated qualities which have kept it so sought after down the centuries. Marble has become a cultural symbol of tradition and refined taste. Its extremely varied and colorful patterns make it a favourite decorative material. Info source: www.athenastonetiles.co.uk

       
Onyx  

orange onyx from iran pic from eurasian.com

image source:eurasian.com

onyx kitchen pic from http://www.thesexykitchen.com/images/onyx_countertop.jpg

image source:www.thesexykitchen.com

marble mies barcelona pic from www.pushpullbar.com

image source:www.pushpullbar.com

traslucent back lighted onyx pic from

image source:www.alibaba.com

 

A semiprecious variety of chalcedony quartz that is used often in jewelry and is considered a gemstone. Onyx is a very beautiful stone with variegated spots and layers, but is also fragile in nature. Special care needs to be taken in the fabrication process. Onyx can be used for furniture, fireplace surrounds, bar tops. Info source:www.paramountgranite.com

The name onyx, from ancient Greek ὄνυξ, meaning nail (referring to finger nail), has been hypothesized to have been applied to this variety of chalcedony because of an early belief that it was formed from Venus' finger nails that were clipped by Cupid as she slept. The translucency plus the banding aspect of fingernails -- which are so-to-speak banded with the white (when clean) ends, the main rosy to flesh colored section (hue dependent on one's blood pressure) and the lighter colored "half moons" near their exposed bases Info source:www.cst.cmich.edu

It is a natural stone that is considered to be semi precious. Onyx is available in a color range from white to deep green and has a translucent appearance. It is being used widely in kitchen backsplashes as well as in free standing structures such as sinks, wash basins and tiles. Info source:www.thesexykitchen.com

 

       
Phorphyry  

porphyry

image source: dragons-intl.com

porphyry nero's bathroom vatican pic from http://www.sacred-destinations.com/italy/vatican-museums.htm

image source: www.sacred-destinations.com

porphyry tomb pic from about.com

image source: z.about.com

porphyry rough modern kitchen by claudio silvestrin pic from www.dezeen.com

image source: www.dezeen.com

 

Porphyry is a remarkably hard, durable rock, which in antiquity derived its name from the fact that its intense, dark red colour, speckled with white inclusions, is similar to the purple colour called purpura by the Romans. The name was extended by association to the massif where porphyry was quarried in Egypt, which the Romans called Mons Porphyrites.

The Romans began to quarry porphyry in the First Century BC, employing it in such large quantities that by the Fifth Century AD their quarries were nearly exhausted. Porphyry was used extensively for monumental elements, and it became invested with an Imperial symbolism, perhaps on account of its analogy with the purpura, which from ancient times had been the prerogative of regal dignity. The use of Porphyry was in fact limited at this time by Diocletian to the Imperial family.

This sacred and celebrative significance was felt and appreciated in the Renaissance courts: porphyry was among the materials most sought after by Sixteenth Century collectors. In Florence, Grand Duke Cosimo I had a particular liking for this stone and sponsored its use in large-scale sculptural works. Given that the ability to execute large sculptural works in this arduous material had long since been lost, such works represented a remarkable technical accomplishment.

Porphyry: a compact, very hard, purple red stone dotted with minute white specks, from the isthmus of Suez, in the eastern Egypt, on the Gebel Dokhan mount, known to the Romans as Mons Porphyrites (from the red color of this stone) or Mons Igneus, Fire mountain. The Porfido Rosso Antico is the classic Roman stone, the symbol of the emperial power and honor. By the late empire, the royal purple stone (porphyry) helped to emphasize the changing role of the emperor as master and divinity, not just "first among equals". This marble was used in emperial tombs, wall panels, columns and vases, whose one of the most famous example is the round vase exposed in the Vatican museum. His high hardness limited strongly his usage in the sculpture, nevertheless the results are excellent.Info source: dragons-intl.com

       
Gravel  

gravel pic from http://www.circleslandscape.com/products.php?cid=4

image source:www.circleslandscape.com

gravel pebbles bathroom pic from http://www.davinapreca.com/blog/index.html

image source:www.davinapreca.com

gravel interior design picfrom http://freshome.com/tag/pebbles/

image source: freshome.com

gravel exterior pic from http://patriciagrayinc.blogspot.com/2008/08/sunday-in-milan.html

image source: patriciagrayinc.blogspot.com

 

 

       
Links  

more web sources about stone materials: www.stonesmithinc.com , www.architonic.com

stones from all around the world : eurasian.com

stone materials network : stone-network.com

more about limestone : encyclopedia.jrank.org

more about travertine : www.natural-stone-interiors.com , www.worldstonex.com

more travertine design : www.granitifiandre.com

more about sandstone : www.answers.com

stone internaional marketplace : www.findstone.com

natural stone tops seller :www.paramountgranite.com

natural stones floors and walls: www.naturalstonetilesflooring.co.uk , www.harrisslate.com

 

 

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