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Wood Design

 

Hardwoods

Mahogany

Walnut

Oak

Ebony

Maple

Cherry

Rosewood

Teak

Softwoods

Pine

Fir

Cedar

 

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wright wood chair pic from www.classic-design24.com

image source: www.classic-design24.com

 

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wright cottage interior seth peterson pic from http://www.apartmenttherapy.com/ny/travel/frank-lloyd-wrights-seth-peterson-cottage-037647

image source: www.apartmenttherapy.com

antique wood roman foldin chair pic from http://www.lamu.com/Caesar%27s%20chair.jpg

image source: www.lamu.com

woodhouse pic from http://www.inhabitat.com/2007/02/16/prefab-friday-haus-schnitzer-bruch/

wood house interior pic from http://www.inhabitat.com/2007/02/16/prefab-friday-haus-schnitzer-bruch/

image source: www.inhabitat.com

walnut library pic from http://www.furniturestoreblog.com/2008/07/25/switch_multifunction_bench_seating_console_table.html

image source: www.furniturestoreblog.com

wood design house pic from http://freshome.com/tag/house/page/8/

Info source: freshome.com

vancouver wood house pic frrom http://now-architecture.com/2008/07/wooden-house-in-vancouver-canada.html

image source: now-architecture.com

wood interior design art sculpture postmodern pic from http://www.contemporist.com/2008/03/02/wooden-showroom/

Info source: www.contemporist.com

 

Wood is probably one of the oldest material used by mankind. It is defined "a warm material" to the sense of sight and tact. It usually gives a sense of heat and delicacy but never of frivolity, and it often suggests well-being and healthy natural living. Wood colors are "hot" but never stressing or depressing. Wood's grains and veneers create pleasing and aesthetically appealing natural motifs.

Wood is a good heat insulator and helps to balance internal humidity and so to maintain a comforting living ambient. It is quite a strong material and, even though it easily catch on fire, its structure is fire-resistant. Wood is also good in receiving and diffusing sound-waves. Indeed music instruments are almost always made of wood.

Wood is easier to acquire, transport, and work than other natural materials. All parts of a building can be efficiently constructed of wood except foundations; its disadvantage is susceptibility to fire, mold, and termites. The strength of wood in both tension and compression arises from its organic nature, which gives it an internal structure of longitudinal and radial fibres that is not impaired by cutting or long exposure. But like all organisms it contains moisture and is not uniformly strong, so it must be carefully selected and seasoned to prevent warping, splitting, and failure under loads. Wood is used in building both solid and skeletal structures. Info source:www.britannica.com

Wood is the hard, tough substance that forms the trunk of trees. Wood has been used for thousands of years as fuel and construction material. The markings, called grain, found on all types of wood, are caused by the structure of wood. Wood consists essentially of fine cellular tubes, which carry water and dissolved minerals from the roots to the leaves and which are arranged more or less vertically within the trunk. This usually forms straight-grained lumber. Many types of wood have prominent growth rings. Only a thin layer entirely surrounding the trunk grows, this called the cambium.

In most trees, the wood formed early in season is lighter of colour than wood growing later in the year. New concentric sheaths are formed around the trunk of a tree each year, the year markings. As a tree grows older the central portion of the trunk, called heartwood, dies completely. Knots are areas of the trunk in which the base of a branch is embedded. When the wood is sawed into planks, knots become clear as somewhat circular discontinuities or irregularities in the grain structure. Knots are generally undesirable in lumber from the standpoint of appearance and their negative influence on the strength of the wood.

The principle physical properties of wood are strength, hardness, stiffness and density. Dense types of wood are usually hard and strong. The term strength covers a number of different properties. Strength varies greatly with seasoning and with the direction of the grain; wood is much stronger when cut along the grain than when cut across it. Toughness is a measure of strength against sudden, repeated stress. Wood is naturally very durable. If not attacked by living things, it can last for hundreds or even for thousands of years.

The most important threat for wood are fungi that cause so-called dry rot. The heartwood of a few species is naturally resistant to these fungi. Other types of natural resistance to various of other types of attack, have been discovered in other species. These types are usually very aromatic. It is suspected that they are protected by the resins and other chemicals they contain. Wood may need to be preserved by protecting it chemically against deterioration. Info source:www.matbase.com

       
Mahogany  

mahogany pic from www.kensasemusic.com

Info source: www.kenkasemusic.com

chippendale style mahogany desk pic from http://www.arthurbrett.com/desks/1977.htm

Info source: www.arthurbrett.com

 

 

Mahogany is a durable and expensive hardwood used to make fine furniture. This rare wood, known for its beautiful grain and deep, reddish-brown color, endows furniture with a timeless, traditional quality. Chairs, tables and other home furnishings crafted with mahogany will last a lifetime and should be considered an investment. The following hints will make buying mahogany furniture easier.

Most mahogany furniture today is made from two varieties, African and South American. South American mahogany is used for fine furniture. Caribbean or West Indian mahogany, another variety, is rarer, because it has been overharvested. Mahogany is an excellent wood for carving and finishes beautifully. Cabinetmakers such as Chippendale and Sheraton have replaced walnut with mahogany for many of their furniture pieces.

A heavy, durable wood, close and straight in the grain, with curls in the figure, light red in color when cut, and becoming deeper and richer in hue with exposure. While present-day taste appreciates the mellowed brown hue to which time has reduced many extant pieces, in the 18th Century, the dark reddish color of the newly polished wood was much preferred. The taste for strong color is not inconsistent with the heavy gilding of post-Restoration furniture and woodwork, which is exemplified in the many gilt consoles and side tables, looking glasses and chairs, of the late 17th and early 18th Century dates. Info source:interiordec.about.com

       
Walnut  

walnut

image source: www.vandersteen.com

carved walnut french rococo chair pic from www.laurelaction.com

image source:www.laurelauction.com

walnut furniture

image source:www.treehugger.com

 

Walnut furniture, which was in fashion in the first half of the 18th century, is characterized by a restraint of form and ornament, and by a seeming simplicity. Enrichment of surface was gained by the use of figured veneers of walnut. The flamboyant Baroque taste of the preceding period underwent a sudden and considerable change about 1700, due in large part to the introduction of the serpentine curves of the cabriole supports and to improving standards of craftsmanship.

An appreciable increase in domestic comfort, in this period, was due in part to the introduction of new and useful pieces. By the early 18 th century, foreign styles had become assimilated and naturalized. The best walnut furniture of the Queen Anne period is direct and unaffected in character, echoing with unassuming grace the mood of the age.

Much of the fine furniture of George I’s reign was made of walnut and also veneered with walnut. On such pieces, carved ornament was mainly confined to the shell on the chair or table. Info source: www.sackheritagegroup.com

       
Oak  

oak pic from http://www.lambethcustomdoor.com/images/red-oak.jpg

image source:www.lambethcustomdoor.com

wright oak furniture pic from http://www.mckinnonfurniture.com/franklloydwright/dining_room.htm

image source:architecture.about.com

 

Oak has been the key wood in America's industrial revolution: railroad ties, wheels, plows, looms, barrels and of course, furniture and doors. The sap wood of red oak is white to light brown and the heartwood is a pinkish reddish brown. The wood is mostly straight-grained, with a coarse texture. Red oak machines well and it can be stained to a good finish with a wide range of available tones. Click here for more information on custom doors. Info source: www.lambethcustomdoor.com

 

       

Ebony

 

www.italianceramicshop.com

image source: www.hardwoods-inc.com

ebony antique cabinet pic from www.britannica.com

image source: www.metmuseum.org

ebonybed modern pic from www.bedzine.com

image source: bedzine.com

 

Ebony is the Greek word for "fruit of the gods". Historically drinking goblets were made from its wood, as they believed it was an antidote for poison, and its use would ward off their enemy's evil intent. This may be the origin for many that think today, that a wooden wand made of gaboon ebony has magical powers.Info source: www.thewoodbox.com

Any of trees of the genus Diospyros, with very dark, hard, heavy heartwood. These trees are native to Africa (black or Gaboon ebony, D.dendo), to India and Ceylon (D.ebenum), east India (Coromandel or Macassar ebony, D.melanoxylon), Sri Lanka (Calamander ebony, D.quaesita). Ebony's dense, smooth-grain wood has been valued from the earliest times and was imported to Egypt from Nubia and the Sudan (Kuhn 1986). It is extremely durable and resistant to rotting, fungi and powder post beetles. Ebony, even though it is difficult to work and carve, is valued for decorative items, inlay work, black piano keys, musical instruments, and tool handles. It is rarely found in large pieces.
Several other dark, heavy woods from unrelated species are also called ebony because of their color. These are: green ebony (cocuswood), brown ebony (coffeewood), blue ebony and Mozambique ebony (African blackwood). Info source: cameo.mfa.org

       
Maple  

maple wood pic from http://www.netshops.com/storageorganization/closetorganizers/reach-inclosets/1914+1920+5288.cfm

image source: www.netshops.com

shaker maple wood furniture pic from http://www.vermontfurnituremakers.com/item_detail2.php?ID=28&Item=273

image source: www.vermontfurnituremakers.com

frank gehry knoll maple armchair pic from www.designaddict.com

image source: www.designaddict.com

 

Hard Maple is currently used for furniture, cabinets, decorative woodwork, flooring, veneers, cutting surfaces, bowling pins, utensils, and bowls.. Ideal for ballroom and gymnasium floors as well as cutting boards and countertops. We think of fiddleback maple as the wood of choice for violin makers. It looks beautiful and resonates sound to perfection. The soft maples are often used as a cheaper substitute for hard maple mouldings, or in applications where the trim is painted.

It is used extensively in the box making industry, and often soft maple boxes are then covered with decorative wood veneers. Generally speaking maples are a great all round woodworking lumber. Tends to have cream to white sapwood and light reddish brown heartstock, usually straight grained and sometimes found with high figured bird's eye or burl grain. Bird's-eye resembles small circular or elliptical figures and only found in sugar maple.

Clusters of round curls that grow into balls on the sides of trees, are known as burls. They are common in the big leaf maple of the west coast. Hard maple is heavy, hard, strong, tough, stiff, close grained and possesses a uniform texture.

It sands to a beautiful tight finish. Excellent resistance to abrasion, indentation and shock. Often the heart stock, shows black mineral lines and darker grey streaking, particularly in wood milled in the northern part of its range. Commercially it is usually sorted by colour. Info source: www.thewoodbox.com

       
Cherry  

maple wood pic from http://www.netshops.com/storageorganization/closetorganizers/reach-inclosets/1914+1920+5288.cfm

image source:www.amishshowroom.com

 

frank gehry knoll maple armchair pic from www.designaddict.com

image source:www.amishshowroom.com

cherry wood charles eames loung chair and ottoman pic from http://www.vardongroup.com/lounge.html

image source:www.vardongroup.com

 

Like all fruit trees, cherry belongs to the rose family and was used as early as 400 B.C. by the Greeks and Romans for furniture making. Cherry helped define American traditional design because Colonial cabinetmakers recognized its superior woodworking qualities. Today, cherry helps define Shaker, Mission and country styling. The wood from the cherry tree can be described in a single word: beautiful. Its rich red-brown color deepens with age. Small dark gum flecks add to its interest. Distinctive, unique figures and grains are brought out through quarter sawing. It has an exceptionally lustrous appearance that glows. Info source: www.warehouseunfinishedfurniture.com

       
Rosewood  

red rosewood pic from www.goldenmoulding.com

image source:www.goldenmoulding.com

chippendale rosewood chair pic from www.thomasjmacdonald.com

image source: www.thomasjmacdonald.com

modern rosewood sofa pic from designrelated.com

image source: designrelated.com

 

Hard Maple is currently used for furniture, cabinets, decorative woodwork, flooring, veneers, cutting surfaces, bowling pins, utensils, and bowls.. Ideal for ballroom and gymnasium floors as well as cutting boards and countertops. We think of fiddleback maple as the wood of choice for violin makers. It looks beautiful and resonates sound to perfection. The soft maples are often used as a cheaper substitute for hard maple mouldings, or in applications where the trim is painted.

It is used extensively in the box making industry, and often soft maple boxes are then covered with decorative wood veneers. Generally speaking maples are a great all round woodworking lumber. Tends to have cream to white sapwood and light reddish brown heartstock, usually straight grained and sometimes found with high figured bird's eye or burl grain. Bird's-eye resembles small circular or elliptical figures and only found in sugar maple.

Clusters of round curls that grow into balls on the sides of trees, are known as burls. They are common in the big leaf maple of the west coast. Hard maple is heavy, hard, strong, tough, stiff, close grained and possesses a uniform texture.

It sands to a beautiful tight finish. Excellent resistance to abrasion, indentation and shock. Often the heart stock, shows black mineral lines and darker grey streaking, particularly in wood milled in the northern part of its range. Commercially it is usually sorted by colour. Info source: www.thewoodbox.com

       
Teak  

teak wood pic from http://www.acfairbankconsulting.ca/images/vicwood/designs/teak03dssm.jpg

image source:www.acfairbankconsulting.ca

teak modern furniture pic from http://www.trendir.com/archives/fretea03291.jpg

image source: www.trendir.com

postmodern teak bench pic from http://www.diamondteak.com/bcwb.html

image source: www.diamondteak.com

 

The most salient characteristic of Teak  is its resistance to all kinds of weather.  Because of this,  it is also resistant to decay and easily repels insects. This is one of the reasons that, unlike other woods, it is often used as the main material for both indoor and outdoor furniture. Teak wood holds its form over many years, even if left outside, and because of this it has often been used for the decking of ships - with its special aroma, cruise ships in particular.

Other characteristics of teak are its elasticity and solid fiber, both of which facilitate woodworking and the ability of woodworkers to create products, such as our own at GiantChess.com, that are both beautiful and durable.

Another reason for the beauty of teak wood products is the special oil content in its heartwood,  which makes this wood always seen to gleam -  maintaining this glow even if it is left outside for a long  period of time. Additionally, Teak wood with its antibacterial characteristics will not become brittle. The owner of teakwood furniture, therefore, will not even find it necessarily to add a preservative to keep it looking like new. Even so,  it can occasionally benefit from some polishing, or the application of some varnish, to enhance its natural beauty. Info source: www.giantchess.com

There is a reason teak furniture is so desirable, especially when it is for outdoor use. Teak has a extremely resilient nature and is very hard, requiring only an occasional application of light oil. In addition, teak also becomes darker and richer as it ages creating a classical aged look. Info source: www.furniturestoreblog.com

       

Pine

 

teak wood pic from http://www.gunnsveneers.co.nz/produce.html

image source: www.gunnsveneers.co.nz

pine farm chairs pic from http://www.mennonitefurniture.on.ca/dining.html

image source: www.mennonitefurniture.on.ca

pine wood interior

image source: www.turnings.co.uk

 

White pine is a soft wood with a close, even and uniform grain texture. It is light in weight but very strong. Its color is pale, light yellow with few markings, none of which are very strong. The surface of white pine is smooth and without raised grain. It is a durable wood which holds its shape exceptionally well, showing no warping, swelling, shrinking, checking or splitting. The wood finisher occasionally gets a specification which calls for finishing pine like English deal wood paneled interiors.

The pine used for this work in America is usually white and has been selected for having many small knots of dark color. The wood is simply sandpapered and brush coated once or twice with strong ammonia to give it a yellow color similar to the aged or antique appearance of the real deal wood after long exposure. The finish is then simply waxing with white wax or it is shellacked with white bleached shellac used thin and waxed or rubbed dull. Deal is a pine tree of the northern group which grows in Europe and North Asia.

It is known as yellow deal and red deal. Russia, Poland, Sweden and Norway export deal lumber. It has been used for hundreds of years for interior house trim and as the core stock or solid parts of furniture and cabinet work over which veneers of finer finishing woods were glued. White deal (spruce) wood is used for cheap furniture in England. Info source: cameo.mfa.org

       
Fir  

fir wood douglas pic from http://www.lambethcustomdoor.com/images/douglas-fir.jpg

image source:www.lambethcustomdoor.com

fir wood bench pic from www.lambethcustomdoor.com

image source:www.kineticindustriesinc.com

 

Douglas-fir is best known for its tough fibre and dense grain structure. It´s grown with more trees per hectare than pine varieties, producing smaller branches (<40mm). The branches are also scattered and not produced as a whorl (or ring around the stem of the tree) so knots are generally smaller and scattered giving greater strength.

Douglas-fir is grown to a much older age than other timber-it´s typically grown between 40 and 50 years before being harvested. The result is substantially higher stiffness and stability.

Builders know that stiff timber reduces deflection and movement under loading. That´s why they prefer Douglas-fir for beams and joists. The table below demonstrates the true advantages in stiffness for Douglas-fir. Info source: www.douglasfir.co.nz

Fir has a handsome, gun-barrel straight grain and a pleasing rosy hue. Sap wood is white to pale yellow; heartwood is russet with high contrast between the springwood and summerwood. Info source: www.lambethcustomdoor.com

       
Cedar  

cedar wood texture pic from flickr.com

Info source: farm1.static.flickr.com

red cedar chair pic from http://www.shopcedar.com/catalog/item/3805194/3486916.htm

Info source: www.shopcedar.com

spruce bentwood www.stylepath.com

Info source: www.stylepath.com

 

 

Cedar is a lightweight and dimensionally stable wood that lies flat and stays straight, which means it resists the natural tendency to crack and check as you might find in many other wood species. Its distinct cell structure discourages moisture rot by allowing it to dry out faster than outdoor furniture made from tropical hardwoods.

Western Red Cedar is incredibly thermal coefficient, meaning even on hot days, it is cool to sit in.

Its bacterial and fungal resistance coupled with the fact that Cedar is 80% the strength of Oak, makes it the most desirable wood to use for building outdoor furniture.

Western Red Cedar fibers contain oils that act as natural preservatives to help the wood resist rot and decay making it excellent furniture material for moist or humid climates. These properties also make Cedar a very popular material for hot tub and sauna areas.

Among other things these naturally occurring organic compounds called (thujaplicins) give off that distinct cedar aroma that is pleasant to humans but a deterrent to insects, moths and other wood pests. This also makes Eastern Aromatic Red Cedar the choice material for closet liners and blanket storage chests.
Info source:www.cedarwoodfurniture.com

       
Links  

more about wood materials : www.matbase.com

brief classification of woods : www.essortment.com , www.warehouseunfinishedfurniture.com

mahogany furniture seller: www.woodlandsfurniture.co.uk

wood sellers : www.lambethcustomdoor.com , www.vandersteen.com

antique mahogany and walnut seller : www.laurelauction.com

more about ebony: cameo.mfa.org

more about maple: www.thewoodbox.com

Shakers' maplewood furniture:www.vermontfurnituremakers.com

gehry maple furniture designed for Knoll: www.designaddict.com

more about cherry wood : www.warehouseunfinishedfurniture.com

more about rosewood : www.thewoodbox.com

more about teak wood : www.giantchess.com

teak furniture design : www.diamondteak.com

more about pine wood: www.craftsman-style.info

more about fir wood : www.douglasfir.co.nz

more about cedar wood : www.cedarwoodfurniture.com

 

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